The friendly former county town Bischofteinitz is situated in Western Bohemia, near the foothills of the Bohemian Forest, in the middle of the picturesque Radbusa River, which rises near the Bavarian border at Friedrichshof-Waier; in the Bohemian Forest, a beautiful forest valley between the Schwanenbruckl and Schmolau in a south-north direction and in the East wanders through the Šumava Mountains. It meanders through Weißensulz, Zwirschen, Schüttarschen, Taschlowitz, Pollschitz and Sirb and enters Bischofteinitz at the Hirschenstein before Piwonka River, which runs through Münchsdorf, Ronsperg and Metzling.
Before the city was the Thalo-Mill, while the St. Anne’s Mill, in whose neighborhood the old pilgrimage church of St. Anna was enthroned with the royal tomb on a hill, received the force of the Piwonka River before its confluence with the Radbusa. The river in the precincts of the city through the wheel of the town mill and the valley provided a very picturesque scene.
On the left bank, the town was guarded to the North by the rough hewn and proud Castle Trauttmansdorff-Weinsberg. In the town square stood the city church with its impressive building facades and its Baroque and Renaissance gables, the town hall and the bell tower with the big bell, and the beautiful English park with reflecting pool and lookout tower and 700 year old giant tree groups stood on a wooded Hubeny hill on the way to Kotzoura, Untermedelzen and Worowitz. To the west, a small suburb created a new district, which reached almost to Neudorf, to the east after the Capuchin monastery with its church, with its new houses and villas on the road to Semeschitz. Upon exiting the city areas, you saw the Herrnmühle, which was turned into a power plant in 1904/05.
On the right bank was the large suburb of Erzdekanalkirche, the German schools (boys and girls primary and civil schools), the Stations of the local railway Bischofteinitz-Ronsperg, civil Dampfbrauerei and agricultural distillery.
St. Anne’s Church
About half an hour west of Bischofteinitz an avenue of lime trees led to a park on a moderately high hill, from whose summit the church greeted from afar. The emergence of the Sanctuary is associated with the legend according to which the citizens of Teinitzer-Krecka erected a wooden statue of St. Anna in the field, which became a point of pilgrimage. This was interpreted as a sign that the Saints wanted to be worshiped in this place.
First, some Teinitzer citizens built a wooden chapel. In 1507, Archdeacon Nicholas von Budweis (also called Tuchschmied) had already built a church in the late Gothic style, which was dedicated on 5 April, 1516, by Peter Kraft , Suffragan Bishop of Regensburg. Archdeacon Nicholas also founded a spiritual brotherhood in honor of St. Anna’s martyrdom, which was confirmed by Pope Alexander II in 1563 and equipped with indulgences. This Brotherhood was followed by almost the whole clergy, the nobility and the faithful of West Bohemia. The only reminder of this Brotherhood is the prayer to St. Anna every Tuesday by the priest. The miraculous image of St. Anna “Visitation” was in a stained glass window above the triptych at the altar.
What appeared to pilgrims in St. Anna was particularly interesting were two chapels built south of the church in the park. The chapel, which was reminiscent of the Moorish style , was dedicated to the suffering mother, who always brought Pieta pious worshipers to their feet. The second chapel was built in 1697 by the Dowager Countess Anna Maria Trauttmansdorff, born Princess Liechtenstein, allegedly according to the pattern of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem.
There were many reasons to go on pilgrimage to St. Anna. However, the main celebration took place every Sunday after 26 July. Since the whole district was a meeting place. From the Tauser area, the Czech pilgrims came with their picturesque costumes to Choden. The celebration was accompanied by a large market every year, which was enjoyed by the children. Below the church a spacious crypt was built in 1839 by the members of the princely Trauttmansdorff family.
On the route to St. Anne’s Church, the above-mentioned Countess Anna Maria Trauttmansdorff set out in 1696 to build stone statues, which represented scenes from the Passion of Christ.
The indigenous population, was a friendly breed of people with strong Bavarian influence and a dialect similar to Egerländischen. A Czech school was built in the twenties and located in the new district. According to the 1930 census, the number of the originally very small Czech population rose by 390 with a total of 3200 residents. In 1938, 28 Czechs were still living in the city. The vast majority of the population was Roman Catholic; the Protestant confession was represented by 20, the Jews by about 54 people.
Several very old churches testify that the city has always been a refuge of Catholic Christianity and the Hussite movement of the 15th Century has bequeathed here no appreciable influence.
The city was the seat of the District Commission for the District of Bischofteinitz , and included a district court (Amtsgericht), a Tax Office (Tax Office), a tax authority and the District School Board for the German districts of Bischofteinitz and Taus. Most residents of the city proper ran a business, tended the land or were farmers, while the residents of the right bank mostly were employed in agriculture and cattle breeding, almost all the inhabitants of the about 35 000 person-strong Bischofteinitz.
Throughout history, Bischofteinitz had different names. More recently, Teinitz was usually (dialect pronunciation: “Teinz”) in use. The historical roots of the name are but the word Horschau-Teinitz, in the Czech Horssov-Tyn, Horssowsky , Horschowsky Tyn Tyn or Horschuv in the Latin Tina Horssii or Tynhorschovium. The word Tein or Tyn is the oldest name for the city. The term Bischofteinitz resulted only from the long-standing affiliation with the Prague Archbishopric.
Bischofteinitz was in the possession of the Prague Archbishopric for more than 450 years, then it was transferred to Dobrohost von Ronsperg as Lord of Teinitz, later from Emperor Ferdinand I to the property of John Popel von Lobkowicz and in 1623 as a result of the Battle of White Mountain to Max Grafen von Trauttmansdorff, the author of the Peace of Westphalia, whose descendants took ownership of the castle and all of the land in possession of the Germans until 1945/46.
In the year 973 Duke Boleslaw founded a bishopric in Bohemia and gave Bischofteinitz to Prague. The foundation of the town falls in the year 717 and was originally Czech. The first mention of the place occurs where a certain Oschitka in Gorsow (the Horsch Auer Grange) manager of the Prague bishops, appears as a witness in 1186, (See “Political District Bischofteinitz” by Karl Liebscher).
Although the related original document is missing, due to a document book that was collected through the efforts of the first Archbishop Ernest of Pardubice Bischofteinitz by Emperor Charles IV in 1351 we know that the city was surrounded with a wall, a moat and city gates. In the time before (1263) the Episcopal Castle was also expanded, built in 1228 from the “House of Bishops” was created, in 1279 the establishment of the Church of St. Peter and Paul, and the establishment of a Kollegiatsstiftes in the old Tein on the right bank of the Radbusa, later Erzdekanalkirche. It was the seat and center of the fledgling Christian population in the districts Teinitz, Taus and Tachau.
Because of trade along the Radbusa between Prague and Regensburg, the area that would one day become the city was already built up with houses. Historians first describe this area with the later build up of the city along the right bank of the Radbusa. In 1357, Bischofteinitz received special status privileges, along with the rest of Bohemia. These have been repeatedly confirmed and extended. Emperor Ferdinand III increased these privileges to include citizenship for the villagers and the right to brew barley and wheat beer, both within and outside the city. This privilege played an important economic role until 1945.
After serious conflict between the archbishop Wechta, who was devoted to the Hussite doctrine and the Catholic citizens of Bischofteinitz ended, the city’s role as an episcopal city was over. Under the Bohemian King Sigismund, a son of Emperor Charles IV, in 1420 Bischofteinitz received a Royal Road. This protection under the new feudal lords would prove beneficial. The large suburb held the magnificent Gothic church of St. Christopher and the churches dedicated to St. Cunegonde and the holy Fabian and Sebastian, and the collegiate which was fortified after the Hussites invaded in 1427 and 1431.
In this period there was already an anti-German sentiment in the air. During this time, German refugees were forced to flee their villages, and while on the run, torn from their hiding sots and murdered. Palacky, the most important Czech historian, wrote in his “History of Bohemia”: “It cannot be determined how many thousands of German are buried at the Bischofteinitz cemetery.” It was not until 1767 that destroyed church was completed and until 1768 was ordained in honor of the Assumption of Mary, Bishop and Martyr and St. Apollinaris.
The Era Lobkowitz
In 1539, Johann Popel von Lobkowitz acquired the rule of Teinitz under the condition that this property, which was once the church’s property, always remain to a Catholic Lord and the Catholic faith.
In 1546, the town was granted a coat of arms by Emperor Ferdinand I, which Emperor Ferdinand II renewed and extended. For this reason, the golden cipher “F II ” covered to the chest with the imperial crown, and with the bottom, the towers of the city protected eagle that dominates the crest of Bischofteinitz.
It is thanks to the work of German missionaries and bishops that the city enjoyed the privileges, such as special tax breaks, for centuries. However, it was ravaged by plagues, war, emergency, fire and flood. One such large fire raged in 1547, on the Wednesday after Easter. The whole town, church, castle and suburbs, including the manorial farm area under the castle was destroyed by fire and 26 people died.
With great diligence, the town and castle were rebuilt in their former splendor. The land of the viscount was constantly enlarged by inheritance and marriage. The castle grounds included a main house with a garden, six meierhofs, a malting house, a brewery, a hop yard and a vineyard. The returns from fisheries, forests and other possessions were significant.
During the turmoil of the Thirty Years War, the population suffered unspeakably. Atrocities , disease, looting, marauding troops , and the longing of troops decimated the population considerably.
The Teinitzer Count William Popel von Lobkowicz, originally a kind master and protector of the city, developed through the influence of his wife into a ruthless Patron who had no respect for the church laws , and the priest and his servants left the town in disgust. He participated in the Battle of White Mountain with the enemies of the royal family, and he escaped death by the sword through the grace of his uncle. His goods, however, were drafted by the royal treasury.
The Era Trauttmansdorff
Graf Maximilian von Trauttmansdorff then acquired the rule of Teinitz in 1622, an old noble family from Trautmansdorff with direct access to the Ost-Steinmark, which already was under the control of Emperor Rudolf II. Under the rule of the von Trauttmansdorff the city recovered from the consequences of war quickly.
In 1683, the poorhouse was built in 1693 along with the reconstruction of the original courthouse and the town hall. In a further modification that came in 1781 came a niche was built on the second Floor, the stone statue of Justitia, the goddess of justice with scales and sword. On the 27th Annual Meeting of the German Federal Bohemian Forest in 1911 the Pilsner sculptor Ludwig Wildt erected a marble plaque above the entrance of the hall. It contained the following words:
“We want our cabins, gray and old, to strangers not inherit, we want in the German Bohemian Forest, German life and German death!”
Because of the good care provided by Capuchin monks on a sickbed in Vienna, Graf Maximilian established a Capuchin monastery in Bischofteinitz. On 22 April 1650, the official establishment of the Capuchin Order in Bischofteinitz took part in the dedication. On 8 June 1650, Maximilian von Trauttmansdorff died. The installation of the Capuchins was plain, quite like their founder St. Francis of Assisi wanted. The Bischofteinitz Capuchins celebrated the Portiunkula of “Mary of the Angels” on august second of every year, this festival became a destination for pilgrims. The people always enjoyed the festival celebrations as a time of peace and celebration of their local Capuchins. Bischofteinitz never lost its Catholic faith. It has remained that way until a Nazi mob drove the Capuchins from town in 1941.
A second major fire in 1708 decimated half of the city including the suburbs, the roof of the Petri et Pauli church was seized by the flames, collapsed and crashed through the church vault. Even the magnificent, Johann the Younger Popel von Lobkowicz mausoleum was destroyed. The church was again rebuilt, this time as a parish church and consecrated in 1773 by the Auxiliary Bishop of Prague. In 1752, the town church was united with the Horsch Auer and suburban church, where the suburban church occupied the seat of the archdeaconry. At the time, the town contained 267 houses. The main sources of the citizens’ income were agriculture, brewing and trade work. There were weavers, Lacemakers, gunsmiths, dyers, drapers, nailers, tanners and watchmen locally. There were well over 150 master craftsmen and many traders and shopkeepers settled here. Three folk festivals of the year were held, and of vast economic importance. The city was home to doctors, surgeons, midwives and a pharmacy. The inns were known everywhere retreat houses.
A big event for the citizens was the visit of the Emperor Joseph II to the castle Trauttmansdorff of Bischofteintz in 1770. He was the protector and liberator, and a monument was built in 1884 in the square in his honor. This monument was destroyed in 1918 by the Czechs. It was just this emperor, who – proud of his German identity – has held during his reign protecting his hand about the culture and language of the Czechs, in a time when this Czech culture was threatened with extinction due to the superiority and dominance of German culture. Without this emperor you would have only learned about 1918 from a Czech textbook. In 1776 a barracks was constructed in the suburbs, next to the school, with stables for the Cuirassier Regiment No. 8, which was stationed there and later remodeled in 1797 for other branches of service.
Johann Joseph Edler von Littrow was born on 13 February 1781 in Bischofteinitz, Director and Professor of Astronomy at the University of Vienna.On 7 July 1784, Franz Willibald Nußhard was born in Bischofteinitz, Doctor of Medicine and Su rgery, Council and professor of special pathology at the University of Prague.
In 1801, Bischofteinitz was again struck by fire, the other 82 next to City Hall houses fell victim. Also during the Napoleonic Wars, the city had to suffer much from quartering troops and occupation.
In 1827, the houses received number plates for the first time and in 1829, the first post office in the former inn was opened. In 1836 a road was built to Neudorf, and 1838 one was built to Horschau.
In 1845, Bischofteinitz was separated from the Klatt Auer district, and was given its own district administration.
The abolition of the serf in the year 1849 meant Bischofteinitz could develop freely. This was the first elections of Members of Parliament. In 1852, was the last ancient city gate was removed. The census in 1879 showed 2890 Bischofteinitz citizens. In1885, the expansion of schools was continued with the commercial and agricultural training schools.
Through the promotion of numerous public and private organizations and individuals the State Railway of Stankau was completed between Blisowa and Taus in 1861 in May 1899 construction of the local railway Stankau – Ronsperg passing by Bischofteinitz began, and on 6 August 1900 was opened to traffic. Since then, the “Bocklin” as it was like called in the vernacular, was an inseparable part of the life of Bischofteinitz.
Construction of the banks, new construction on the brewery, Collectives for trade and business, tourism board, the opening of the girl’s school, the power plant and the distillery took place from the late 19th to the early 20th centuries.
In 1913, construction began on the Galgenberg on the Lourdes pilgrimage church which was consecrated in 1925/26, and restored the Erzdekanalkirche to its original state.
In 1914, the wooden bridge over the Radbusa was replaced by an iron structure
The World Wars and Their Results
The beginning and end of the First World War hit Bischofteinitz hard. Many fathers and sons lost their lives. In 1918, the Czech army marched into Bischofteinitz and by 1919 began torturing the German population with heavy cultural and economic sanctions and a systematic “Czechification” of the population. This later led to the annexation which took place in 1938.
The city was significantly enlarged and beautified after the First World War. It originated with the residential area, new commercial establishments and banks, new rows of buildings and the construction of a city park on the Radbusa. Even during the Second World War the great “City Hall” was built on the site of the old brewery, and a cinema was constructed in the city. Czech tyranny was exchanged for the dictatorship of the Nazis, which brought with it tests of faith for the Bischofteinitzer Catholics, flight to foreign lands for the cities Jews, and imprisonment, harassment or death for those involved in anti-Nazi organizations. Many Bischofteinitz families shouldered the blame for placing their faith in the Nazis to bring about progress in the area, as well as the high death toll the war enacted on the city.
The end of the war brought with it an influx in Czech speaking citizens. Spurred by years of anti- German propaganda they now wanted to have revenge on a scale unimaginable, a bloodthirsty tide of extreme nationalism followed which drove many Germans from their ancestral homeland.
“I am the last Trauttmansdorff alive who lived in the castle in Bischofteinitz from the time of my birth in 1926 to the day I left, the 17th of September 1945.
The Castle was in the Trauttmansdorff family from 1648, after the Westphalian Peace Treaty (30 Years War), signed in Muenster, Westphalia by Maximilian Trauttmansdorff, a member of the treaty delegation appointed by the Austrian emperor. Before this the castle was owned by the Lobkowitz family and years before, for some time, by the bishops of Regensburg, hence the name Bischofteinitz.
The first time ever, the place was mentioned was in 715 but what it was, has never been known. The castle has several times been damaged and partly been burned down as in the Hussite Wars in 1422 to 1431.
The Czech Government has done a great job in renovations, rebuilding the old chapel damaged in fire and mistakenly a baroque altar was installed, but it has recently been redone with gothic altar and the original entrance placed as it was before the fire.
As children growing up in the castle we had always been told that the water well in the centre court yard is as deep as the local church tower is tall.”
A settlement on the right bank of the Radbuza river was first established in the mid-13th century, on land owned by the archbishops of Prague. The town was besieged and defended during the Hussite wars between 1422 and 1431. The German Elector John, Count Palatine of Neumarkt (Johann von Pfalz-Neumarkt) helped relieve the town.
After the death of Louis II of Hungary at the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Archduke Ferdinand of Austria became King of Bohemia and the country became a constituent state of the Habsburg Monarchy to 1918.
After 1539 Bischofteinitz belonged to the House of Lobkowicz. After the Thirty Years War the town passed to the counts on Trauttmansdorff, in whose possession the castle remained until 1945. Bischofteinitz developed into an important, if minor, provincial centre bordering Bavaria.
During the late 19th century and especially after 1918 Czechs began moving into the district in large numbers. In 1938 the town and region were annexed into Nazi Germany as part of the Sudetenland.
The main attraction is a castle that was rebuilt in 1547 by Agostino Galli. Much of the original Gothic castle, the palace portals and some rooms has been preserved. In the town itself there are two Gothic churches and a former Capuchin monastery.
Until 1945 the area was populated by native Germans who spoke a Northern Bavarian dialect (Nordbairisch). These people were expelled by the Beneš decrees following World War II. On 1 December 1930 Horšovský Týn had 3,117 inhabitants; on 17 May 1939 there were 2995, and on 22 May 1947 2,393 inhabitants.